U & V
U(or Unc, or UNC) Uncirculated, a pricelist abbreviation re coins and papermonies and other paper documents.
U Used, a pricelist abbreviation re philatelic materials which are postally used or cancelled, as distinguished from M (mint) which are postally unused and with original gum.
ultramarino Overseas, in Portugese. Almost all notes produced for the twelve Portugese colonies were issued by the Lisboa (Lisbon) office of Banco Nacional Ultramarino.
uncirculated New as issued. Without any wear or defects.
uncut sheet A sheet of notes as printed. Some uncut, or partially cut sheets find their way unto the collector market.
underprint An anti-counterfeiting device consisting of a light color shade or tint, or a fine pattern, appearing "underneath" the main design of a paper document. With stamps, it is often the only security device. Since modern papermonies usually have a number of security devices, the effect is less obvious and may "disappear" into the general "colorfulness" of the note. See also: borelage.
uniface A paper document with printing only on one side. Many early notes were uniface.
unfinished (note) A note with incomplete printing. For example, it may lack serial numbers, signatures, and/or dates, etc. See: remainder note.
unique A collectors item of which only one specimen exists. Some errors are unique.
unissued (note) See: unfinished note, remainder note.
unlisted A collectible not found in a reference catalog either because the cataloguer was unaware of its existence, or because the cataloguer has decided that it does not merit listing. Re papermonies in the pre-Pick days, this word saw plenty of use as new "discoveries" were made daily.
unsafe Some plastics are unsafe for housing and/or storing paper treasures. The chemistry of plastics is clearly beyond the scope of this book. A novice collector should always check first with an expert before deciding to use a particular product. In sales literature, one should look for this assuring phrase: archival quality. You can be sure that professional museum archivists have done their homework.
unused The condition of a stamp that has no cancellation or other sign of use. Aka mint.
USD International banking symbol for American Dollars (USA$). Each currency has its own unique 3-letter symbol in computerized exchange rate tables in currency exchanges throughout the world.
USDA United States Department of Agriculture. See: Food stamps, food cupons.
used The condition of a stamp that has been postally cancelled.
validation stamp A rubber stamped image applied to something in order to validate or revalidate it, usually for a purpose (or at a location) different from the original.
valuation(s) See: catalog value(s).
value A fair or proper equivalent in money, commodities, etc, at a given point in time, for something sold or exchanged. A branch of philosophy.
variety In syngraphics (as in many other collecting fields) a specific item as distinguished from other similar items. Varieties can be roughly, and somewhat arbitrarily, divided into two categories. See the next two entries below.
varieties, major These involve major design changes, including any changes to the backround (primary) printing plate, colors, printers, printing processes (eg, engraved vs lithographed), signifi-cant overprints, etc.
varieties, minor These involve changes in signature combina-tions and dates (unless these were parts of the primary printing plate), watermarks, serial number fonts, etc.
Verrechnungsscheine Reckoning notes, in German. Notes issued to German troops, during World War II, upon their departure for an occupied territory, and exchangeable upon arrival for the local currency. Never intended for actual circulation.
VETFIU -- Very Easy To Find In Uncirculated. Said of notes which have no market value unless they are in strictly uncirculated condition.
VF -- Very Fine.
Victory note(s) Philippine notes overprinted VICTORY. Brought in by MacArthur's invasion forces in October 1944, they were issued thru 1949.
vignette A picture or illustration without any definite border (frame), shading off gradually at the edges. Loosely, in papermonies, any picture or illustration, including the framed ones.
virgule A short diagonal line (/) placed between two words [for example: and/or] to indicate that either word can be used in interpre-ting the statement. Incidentally, in this sense, "w/o" does not really mean "without"; see: wo.
vőlakohustus Debt obligation, in Estonian. Spelled with a W until the language reform of the mid-1920s eliminated W from the alphabet as redundant and unnecessary.
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