R, RR, RRR, etc (Or, R1, R2, R3, etc.) A largely subjective and now thankfully obsolete and abandoned pseudo-method of indicating assumed degrees of rarity, used by some pricelist dealers and auctioneers prior to the availability of comprehensive catalogs.
raised note (or check) A note on which the denomination has been increased with a view toward illegal gain. See also: altered.
rare Uncommon. Very few in existence. Unfortunately, dealers often use rare and scarce, qv, almost interchangeably. An over-simplification: If you see it offered by more than one dealer, it can't be rare.
reckoning note(s) See: Verrechnungsscheine.
redeemable For example, a note which is still "good", that is, negotiable at face value. See also: negotiable, non-redeemable.
Refunding Certificate A $10 USA certificate of deposit, authorized on 26 Feb 1879. It offered 4% annual interest, indefinitely, in an effort to increase the acceptance and continued use of paper money. The interest was payment was stopped by law in 1907 when the note was worth $21.30.
Reichkreditkassen State credit treasury, in German. Notes with this title were issued for circulation in occupied countries in World War II, including the Baltic States.
reissue An officially reprinted note or stamp that was no longer being printed. Generally indistinguishable from its older sibling, except possibly by researching serial numbers in the case of notes.
remainder note(s) In many cases, especially in the 19th Century, notes which were printed in a distant country arrived without serial numbers, signatures and possibly dates, for security and logistical reasons. The small stuff was left for local printers. Now, if the local issuer, eg, a Latin American country or bank, ceased ope-rations or changed the design, it was left with a fistful of...yep, you guessed it...remainder notes. Unless "regular" notes are unavailable, such unfinished or unissued notes command much lower prices.
repaired note A note which has been repaired in order to bolster its market value. Kids, don't try this at home!
replacement note(s) Modern notes are printed in sheets. Unique serial numbers are added in a second printing operation. This requires numbering machines which advance by one with each sheet, for each location on the sheet. Then, the stack of 100 sheets is die cut in such a way that all the resulting packs-of-100 notes have notes arranged sequentially (something like AB55555201--AB55555300). If an inspector finds one or more faulty sheets, he/she removes it/them, and REPLACES them with sheets from another stack of sheets. You see, it would be totally impractical to reprint the faulty sheets, as that would involve hand setting each and every numbering machine (there are typically 32 or 36 of them, I forget). The REPLACEMENT note sheets have their own number sequence, totally unrelated to what they replace. Moreover, they are distinguished in some way. American papermonies use a five-pointed star. Canadians prefer an asterisk. Other countries may also use stars or asterisks. Still others use other signifiers, eg, R, Z, etc. Such signifiers usually precede the serial number, replacing (!) any series letters. The practice began in 1954.
replica A very close reproduction or a copy. In the early days of stamp collecting, postal authorities catered to collectors by selling monochrome stamps of several designs on a sheet. Such replicas were never intended to deceive either post offices or collectors.
reprint Printed from the original plate, possibly by an unauthorized party. In philately, a stamp which is no longer valid for postage, officially reprinted for presentation purposes, official collections, etc, often distinguished in some way from the original.
reproduction A process which fuels evolution. Also, a copy, close imitation, or duplication. See: table after counterfeit for often confused terms.
restored (note) No such animal! Still, one sees it occasionally in some pricelist or catalog descriptions.
revalidated issue(s) A note (or stamp) bearing an official overprint, overstamp or other marking to indicate renewed status as legal tender (or postage), despite previous invalidation. Syngraphic or philatelic version of being born again.
revalue(d), revaluation A note or stamp overprinted with a new value. Reasons include monetary reform, inflation, and change in government. Reincarnation a la syngraphics or philatelics.
revenue stamps Stamps not valid for postage, but issued for collecting taxes. Some are large and ornate, and of interest to fringe area collectors among syngraphists.
reverse The back side of a coin or medal; opposite of obverse. Not used with reference to papermonies.
reversed As in reversed overprint, etc. See invert for a differentiation between these two terms.
ribbed paper Paper which shows fine parallel ridges on or both sides.
Romanization The art of rendering Oriental characters or words in the Roman alphabet. The process is often somewhat arbitrary, eg, Mao Tse Tung could also be Mao Zedung.
rubber stamp overprints These have to be the easiest things in the universe to counterfeit, whether for spending purposes, or for fooling collectors. Watch out for situations where overstamped versions are at least twice as valuable as their plain counterparts. How can you determine? A microscope might help, but hardly without a known genuine specimen at hand for comparison. Yes, this goes for stamps as well as for all paper collectibles. See also: overprints.
Russian Occupation Notes World War II Russian notes issued for the occupied countries of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Manchuria, and Korea.
printer's or typesetter's term refer-ring to a style of type without serifs, qv. Most of this book is set in a serif typeface, ie, a typeface that contains serifs. This sentence is set in a sans serif type style. See also serif for comparison and clarification.
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